Personality disorders are a type of mental disorder that can harm lives and relationships if left undiagnosed and untreated. People with personality disorders may express a wide range of emotions and behaviours that are considered harmful to relationships, causing friends and family to withdraw from the individual.
What are Personality Disorders?
Personality is the way of thinking, feeling, and behaving that distinguishes a person from other people. An individual’s personality is influenced by experiences, environment (surroundings, living situation), and inherited characteristics. A person’s personality usually remains the same over time.
To be classified as a personality disorder, the pattern of thinking, feeling, and behaving deviates from cultural expectations, causes distress or problems with functioning, and persists over time. According to psychiatric doctors near me, The pattern of experiencing and behaving usually begins in late adolescence or early adulthood. and causes anxiety or problems in functioning. Without treatment, personality disorders can be long-term.
Symptoms of Personality Disorder
Common symptoms of a personality disorder include:
- strange or erratic behaviour
- suspicion and mistrust
- extreme mood swings (outbursts of anger)
- relationship difficulties
- problems at school or work
- the need for immediate gratification
Causes of Personality Disorders
It’s not exactly clear what causes personality disorders, but they’re thought to be the result of a combination of genes a person inherits and early environmental influences — such as a stressful childhood experience (such as abuse or neglect).
If your doctor surmises you have a personality disorder, a diagnosis may be made:
Physical exam: The doctor may perform a physical examination and ask detailed questions about your health. In many cases, your symptoms may be related to an elementary physical health problem. Your evaluation may include laboratory tests and an alcohol and drug screening test.
Psychiatric evaluation: This includes a discussion about your thoughts, feelings, and behaviour and may include a questionnaire to help you determine a diagnosis. With your assent, information from family members or others may be helpful.
Diagnostic criteria in DSM-5: Your doctor can compare your symptoms to the criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association.
Different Types of Personality Disorders
Cluster A; Suspicious:
Paranoid personality disorder: People with a paranoid personality disorder may be distrustful of others and suspicious of their motives.
Schizoid personality disorder: People with a schizoid personality disorder may show little interest in forming personal relationships or engaging in social interactions. They may have difficulty interpreting social cues, causing them to appear emotionally distant.
Schizotypal personality disorder: People with a schizotypal personality disorder often believe that they can influence other people or events with their thoughts. They may misinterpret behaviour, leading to inappropriate emotional responses. They may also avoid intimate relationships. PTSD clinic near me is best treatment center.
Cluster B personality disorders are distinguished by dramatic, overly emotional, or unpredictable thinking or behaviour.
Antisocial Personality Disorder:
- Ignoring the requirements or feelings of others.
- Persistent lying, stealing, using aliases, cheating others.
- Recurring problems with the law.
- Aggressive, often violent behaviour.
- Disregarding your safety or the safety of others.
- Impulsive behaviour.
Borderline Personality Disorder:
- Unstable or fragile self-image.
- Unstable and intense relationships.
- Moods are up and down, often in response to interpersonal stress.
- Suicidal behavior or threats of self-harm.
- Acute fear of being alone or abandoned.
- Persistent feelings of emptiness.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder:
- Believe that you are special and more important than others.
- The fantasy of power, success, and attractiveness.
- Inability to admit the needs and feelings of others.
- Exaggerating achievements or talents.
- Expecting constant praise and admiration.
Common features of these disorders include anxious and fearful thoughts and behaviours:
Avoidant personality disorder: people with this disorder avoid social interaction and are extremely sensitive to the negative judgments of others; they may be timid and socially isolated with feelings of inadequacy.
Dependent personality disorder: this disorder causes fear of being alone and needing to be cared for, difficulty separating from loved ones or making independent decisions. People can be submissive and even tolerate domineering or abusive relationships.
Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder: people with this disorder are preoccupied with rules, order, and value work over other aspects of life. They are perfectionists and need to be in control. Note that this is unlike obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of Personality Disorder
Personality disorders have several effects on the psyche over time, both short-term and long-term. They restrain, but are not restricted to, the following:
- Difficulties in relationships.
- Increased withdrawal from socialisation.
- Mood swings.
- Suicidal thoughts.
- Suicide attempt.
- Decrease in physical health due to lack of care.
Treatments of Personality Disorders
Psychotherapy is the most powerful long-term treatment option for personality disorders. So, Psychotherapy is when a psychologist, psychiatrist, or psychotherapist helps people understand their thoughts, motivations, and feelings. These insights can help people manage their symptoms, develop satisfying relationships, and make positive behavioural changes. CBT therapy near me is one of best option of it treatment.
- cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)
- dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT)
- psychodynamic psychotherapy
Antidepressants: Antidepressants can be helpful if you have a depressed mood, anger, impulsivity, irritability, or hopelessness, which can be associated with personality disorders.
Mood stabilisers: As their name suggests, mood stabilisers can help balance mood swings or reduce irritability, impulsivity, and aggression.
Antipsychotic drugs: Also called neuroleptics, they can be helpful if your symptoms include losing touch with reality (psychosis) or in some cases if you have anxiety or anger problems.
Anti-anxiety medication: These can help if you have anxiety, restlessness, or insomnia. But in many cases, they can grow into impulsive behaviour, so they are avoided in certain kinds of personality disorders.
Medications Side Effects
Personality disorder medications can have several side effects, including but not limited to:
- Libido changes
- Losing or gaining weight
Many people with personality disorders recover over time. Psychological or medical treatment is often helpful, but sometimes support is all that needed.
There is no one-size-fits-all approach – treatment should tailored to the individual.
There is currently no known way to prevent personality disorders, but many associated problems can be alleviated with treatment. Seeking help as soon as symptoms appear can help reduce the disruption to a person’s life, family and friendships.
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